There are two well known adjusted yards per attempt formulas, which easily reduce to simple scoring models. The first is the equation  introduced by Carroll et al. in “The Hidden Game of Football“, which they called the  New Passer Rating.

(1) AYA = (YDs + 10*TDs- 45*INTs)/ ATTEMPTS

And the Pro Football Reference formula currently in use.

(2) AYA  = (YDs +20*TDs – 45*INTs)/ATTEMPTS.

Scoring model corresponding to the THGF New Passer Rating, with opposition curve also plotted. Difference between curves is the turnover value, 4 points.

Formula (1) fits well to a scoring model with the following attributes:

• The value at the 0 yard line is -2 points, corresponding to scoring a safety.
• The slope of the line is 0.08 points per yard.
• At 100 yards, the value of the curve is 6 points.
•  The value of a touchdown in this model is 6.8 points.

The difference, 0.8 points, translated by the slope of the line,  (i.e 0.8/0.08) is equivalent to 10 yards. 4 points, the value of a turnover, is equal to 50 yards. 45 was selected to approximate a 5 yard runback, presumably.

Pro Football Reference AYA formula translated into a scoring model. Difference in team and opposition curves, the turnover value, equals 3.5 points.

Formula (2) fits well to a scoring model with the following attributes:

• The value at the 0 yard line is -2 points, corresponding to scoring a safety.
• The slope of the line is 0.075 points per yard.
• At 100 yards, the value of the curve is 5.5 points.
• The value of a touchdown in this model is 7.0 points.

The difference, 1.5 points, translated by the slope of the line,  (i.e 1.5/0.075) is equivalent to 20 yards. 3.5 points, the value of a turnover, is equal to 46.67 yards. 45 remains in the INT term for reasons of tradition, and the simple fact this kind of interpretation of the formulas wasn’t available when Pro Football Reference introduced their new formula. Otherwise, they might have preferred 40.

Because these models show a clearly evident relationship between yards and points, you can calculate expected points from these kinds of formulas. The conversion factor is the slope of the line. If, for example, I wanted to find out how many expected point Robert Griffin III would generate in 30 passes, that’s pretty easy, using the Pro Football Reference values of AYA. RG3′s AYA is 8.6, and 0.075 x 30  = 2.25. So, if the Skins can get RG3 to pass 30 times, against a league average defense, he should generate 19.35 points of offense. Matt Ryan, with his 7.7 AYA, would  be expected to generate 17.33 points of offense in 30 passes. Tony Romo? His 7.6 AYA corresponds to  17.1 expected  points per 30 passes.

Peyton  Manning, in his best  year, 2004, with a 10.2 AYA, could have been expected to generate 22.95 points per 30 passes.

This simple relationship is one reason why, even if you’re happy with the correlation between the NFL passer rating and winning  (which is real but isn’t all that great), that  you should sometimes consider thinking in terms of AYA.

A Probabilistic Rule of Thumb.

If you think about these scoring models in a simplified way, where there are only two results, either a TD or a non-scoring result, an interesting rule of thumb emerges. The TD term in equation (1) is equal to 10 yards, or 0.8 points. 0.8/6.8 x 100 = 11.76%, suggesting that the odds of *not* scoring, in formula (1), is about 10%. Likewise, for equation (2) whose TD term is 20, 1.5/7 x 100 = 21.43%, suggesting the odds of *not* scoring, in formula (2), is about 20%.

Ok, this whole article is a kind of speculation on my part. DVOA is generally sold as a kind of generalization of the success rate concept, translated into a percentage above (or below) the norm. Components of DVOA include success rate, turnover adjustments, and scoring adjustments. For now, that’s enough to consider.

Adjusted yards per attempt, as we’ve shown, is derived from scoring models, in particular expected points models, and could be considered to be the linearization of a decidedly nonlinear EP curve. But if I wanted to, I could call AYA style stats the generalization of the yardage concept, one in which scoring and turnovers are all folded into a single number valued in terms of yards per attempt.

So, if I were to take AYA or its fancier cousin ANYA, and replace yards with success rate, and then refactor turnovers and scoring so that turnovers and scoring were scaled appropriately, I would end up with something like the “V” in DVOA. I could then add a SRS style defensive adjustment, and now I have “DV”. If I now calculate an average, and normalize all terms relative to my average, I’d end up with “Homemade DVOA”, wouldn’t I?

The point is, AYA or ANYA formulas are not really yardage stats, they are scoring stats whose units are in yards. So, if really, DVOA is ANYA in sheep’s clothing, where yardage has been replaced by success rate, with some after the fact defense adjustments and normalization from success rate “units”.. well, yes, then DVOA is a scoring stat, a kind of sophisticated and normalized “adjusted net success rate per attempt”.

Ed Bouchette has a good article, with Steelers defenders talking about Michael Vick. Neil Payne has two interesting pieces (here and here) on how winning early games is correlated with the final record for the season.

Brian Burke has made an interesting attempt to break down EP (expected points) data to the level of individual teams. I’ve contributed to the discussion there. There is a lot to the notion that slope of the EP curve reflects the ease with which a team can score, and the more shallow the slope, the easier it is for a team to score.

Note that the defensive contribution to a EP curve will depend on how expected points are actually scored. In a Keith Goldner type Markov chain model (a “raw” EP model), a defense cannot affect its own EP curve. It can only affect an opponent’s curve. In a Romer/Burke type EP formulation, the defensive effect on a team’s EP curve and the opponent’s EP curve is complex. Scoring by the defense has an “equal and opposite” effect on team and opponent EP, the slope being affected by frequency of the scoring as a function of yard line. Various kinds of stops could also affect the slope as well. Since scoring opportunities increase for an offense the closer to the goal line the offense gets, an equal stop probability per yard line would end up yielding nonequal scoring chances, and thus slope changes.

The Fifth Down blog features an article about a new phone app, one that says it will give you the winning chances of every play during the game. In the article, we get this little gem:

According to his analysis, a team that returns a kickoff to its 40-yard line can be expected to score an average of 3 more points on the drive than if it had started at the 20-yard line.

“If you make it to the 40, you essentially just made a field goal, even if you don’t realize that immediately,” Bessire said.

I seriously doubt this. 3 points * 100 yards / 20 yards = 15 points. I don’t know of anyone who scales an expected points curve to be worth 15 points. I don’t know of a single reliable EP solution with slopes routinely greater than 0.08 points per yard in between the 20 yard lines.

You pay your money, and you take your chances. Simply put, I can’t recommend this app.

I’ve been looking at this model recently, and thinking.

Backstory references, for those who need them: here and here and here.

Pro Football Reference’s AYA statistic as a scoring potential model. The barrier potential represents the idea that scoring chances do not become 100% as the opponents goal line is neared.

If the odds of scoring a touchdown approach 100% as you approach the goal line, then the barrier potential disappears, and the “yards to go” intercept is equal to the value of the touchdown. The values in the PFR model appear to always increase as they approach the goal line. They never go down, the way real values do. Therefore, the model as presented on their pages appears to be a fitted curve, not raw data.

The value they assign the touchdown is 7 points. The EP value of first and goal on the 1 is 6.97 points. 6.97 / 7.00 * 100 = 99.57%. How many of you out there think the chances of scoring a touchdown on the 1 yard line are better than 99%?

More so, the EP value, 1st and goal on the 2 yard line is 6.74. Ok, if the fitting function is linear, or perhaps quadratic, then how do you go 6.74, to 6.97, to 7.00? The difference between 6.74 and 6.97 is 0.23 points. Assuming linearity (not true, as first and 10 points on the other end of the curve typically differ by 0.03 points per yard), you get an extrapolated intercept of 7.20 points.

The PFR model has its issues. The first down intercept seems odd, and it lacks a barrier potential. To what extent this is an artifact of a polynomial (or other curve) fitted to real data remains to be seen.

Update: added a useful Keith Goldner reference, which has a chart giving probabilities of scoring a touchdown.

After watching one or another controversy break out during the 2011 season, I’ve become convinced that the average “analytics guy” needs a source of play-by-play data on a weekly basis. I’m at a loss at the moment to recommend a perfect solution. I can see the play-by-play data on NFL.com, but I can’t download it. Worst case, you would think you could save the page and get to the data, but that doesn’t work. I suspect the use of AJAX or equivalent server side technology to write the data to the page after the HTML has been presented. Good for business, I’m sure, but not good for Joe Analytics Guy.

One possible source is now Pro Football Reference (PFR), which now has play by play data in their box scores, and has tended to present their data in AJAX free, user friendly fashion. Whether Joe Analytics Guy can do more than use those data personally, I doubt. PFR is purchasing their raw data from another source. And whatever restrictions the supplier puts on PFR’s data legally trickle down to us.

Further, along with the play by play, PFR is now calculating expected points (EP) along with the play by play data. Thing is, what expected point model is Pro Football Reference actually using? Unlike win probabilities, which have one interpretation per data set, EP models are a class of related models which can be quite different in value (discussed here, here, here). If you need independent verification, please note that Keith Goldner now has published 4 separate EP models (here and here), his old Markov Chain model, the new Markov Chain model, a response function model, and a model based on piecewise fits.

That’s question number one. Question that have to be answered to answer question one are things like:

• How is PFR scoring drives?
• What is their value for a touchdown?
• If PFR were to eliminate down and distance as variables, what curve do they end up with?

This last would define how well Pro Football Reference’s own EP model supports their own AYA formula. After all, that’s what a AYA formula is, a linearized approximation of a EP model where down and to go distance are ignored, with yards to score is the only independent variable.

Representative Pro Football Reference EP Values
1 yard to go 99 yards to go
Down EP Down EP
1 6.97 1 -0.38
2 5.91 2 -0.78
3 5.17 3 -1.42
4 3.55 4 -2.49

My recommendation is that PFR clearly delineate their assumptions in the same glossary where they define their version of AYA. Make it a single click lookup, so Joe Analytics Guy knows what the darned formula actually means. Barring that, I’ve suggested to Neil Paine that they publish their EP model data separately from their play by play data. A blog post with 1st and ten, 2nd and ten, 3rd and ten curves would give those of us in the wild a fighting chance to figure out how PFR actually came by their numbers.

Update: the chart that features 99 yards to go clearly isn’t 1st and 99, 2nd and 99. Those are 1st and 10 values, 2nd and 10, etc at the team’s 1 yard line. The only 4th down value of 2011, 99 yards away, is a 4th and 13 play, so that’s what is reported above.

Possession of a ball in a ball game is a binary act. You either have it or you don’t. That means that the total value of stats associated with possession is also binary. This is true regardless whether the sport splits the value of a turnover in two or not, and notions of shared blame can cause issues when thinking about football. Football isn’t like other sports. Some of its “turnovers”, the punt especially, aren’t as easily quantifiable in the terms of other sports.

As an example of shared blame, we’ll take on the turnover in basketball. The potential value of the shot in the NBA is one point. This is easy to see, because a shot is worth 2 points and a typical NBA shooting percentage is about 50 percent (or a 3 point shot, with a percentage around 33%). That said, the value of the possession is two points, and  the total value of the turnover is also two points.

Wait a minute, you say. The STL stat is generally only valued at 1 point. How can it be two? Well, there are two stats associated with a turnover in basketball. There is the TO stat, and the STL stat. And in metrics like the NBA Efficiency metric, each of  these stats is valued at a point. TO + STL = total value of 2 points. The turnover in basketball is worth 2 points, and thus the possession is worth two points. The sum gets hidden because half of it is credited to the thief, and half is debited from the one who lost the ball.

The value of the turnover is the difference in value between the curves.

The classic description of the turnover in football derives from  the Hidden Game of Football, and because their equivalent points metric is linear and independent of down and to go measures, the resultant value for the turnover is a constant. This isn’t easy to see in traditional visual depictions, but becomes easy to see when you flip the opposition values upside down.

See how the relative distance between the lines never change? By the way, you can do the same thing for basketball, though the graph is a bit on the trivial side.

This curve probably should have some distance dependence, actually.

These twin plots are a valuable way to think about the game,  turnovers, and for that matter, the game of football as a series of transitions between states. For now, by way of example, we’ll use these raw NEP data I calculated for my “states” post. We’ll plot an opposition set of data upside down and show what a state transition walk might look like using these data.

The game of football can be described as a "walk" along a pair of EP curves.

Not that complicated, is it? You could visualize these data two ways: as a kind of “Youtube video” where the specific value for the game changes as plays are executed, and the view remains 2D, or as a 3D stack of planes, each with one graph, each plane representing the game at a single play in the game.

Even in football, though, you could attempt to split the blame for the turnover into two parts: there is the person that lost the ball, and the person that recovers it. So  the value for the state transition from one team to the  next could be split in two, a la basketball, and credit give to the recovering side and a debit taken from the side losing the ball.

So what about  the punt? It has no equivalent in basketball or baseball, and in general, looks just like a single state transition.

The punt, in this depiction, is a single indivisible state transition from one team to the other.

It’s a single whole, and therefore, you can get yourself into logical conundrums when you attempt to split the value of the punt in two.

This whole discussion, by  the way, is something of an explanation for Benjamin Morris and folks like him, who saw his live blog on October 9, 2011. It’s not easy getting this point across using his graphics on his site. My point is more fully developed above, and why I was saying the things I did more evident from the graphics above.

Ben, btw, is an awesome analytics blogger. Please don’t take this discussion as any kind of indictment of his work, which is of a very high quality.

The value of a turnover is a topic addressed in The Hidden Game of Football, noting that the turnover value consists of the loss of value by the team that lost the ball and the gain of value  by the team that recovered the ball. To think in these terms, a scoring model is necessary, one that gives a value to field position. With such a model then, the value is

Turnover = Value gained by team with the ball + Value lost by team without the ball

In  the case of the classic models of THGF, that value is 4 points, and it is 4 points no matter what part of the field the ball is recovered.

That invariance is a product of the invariant slope of the scoring model. The model in THGF is linear, the derivative of a line is a constant, and the slopes, because this model doesn’t take into account any differences between teams, cancel. That’s not true in models such as the Markov chain model of Keith Goldner, the cubic fit to a “nearly linear” model of Aaron Schatz in 2003, and the college expected points model (he calls his model equivalent points, but it’s clearly the same thing as an expected points model)  of Bill Connelly on the site Football Study Hall. Interestingly, Bill’s model and Keith’s model have a quadratic appearance, which guarantees better than constant slope throughout their curves. Aaron’s cubic fit has a clear “better than constant” slope beyond the 50 yard line or so.

Formula with slopes exceeding a constant result  in turnover values that maximize at the end zones and minimize in the middle  of the field, giving plots that Aaron calls the “Happy Turnover Smile Time Hour”. As an example, this is the value of a turnover on first and  ten (ball lost at the LOS) for Keith Goldner’s model

First and ten turnover value from Keith Goldner’s Markov chain model

And this is the piece of code you can use to calculate this curve yourself.

Note also, the models of Bill Connelly and Keith have no negative expected points values. This is unlike the David Romer model and also unlike Brian Burke’s expected points model. I suspect this is a consequence of how drives are scored. Keith is pretty explicit about his extinction “events” for drives in his model, none of which inherit any subsequent scoring by the opposition. In contrast, Brian suggests that a drive for a team that stalls inherits some “responsibility” for points subsequently scored.

A 1st down on an opponent’s 20 is worth 3.7 EP. But a 1st down on an offense’s own 5 yd line (95 yards to the end zone) is worth -0.5 EP. The team on defense is actually more likely to eventually score next.

This is interesting because this “inherited responsibility” tends to linearize the data set except inside  the 10 yard line on either end. A pretty good approximation to the first and ten data of the Brian Burke link above can be had with a line that is valued 5 points at one end,  -1 points at the other. The value of the slope becomes 0.06 points, and the value of the turnover becomes 4 points in this linearization of the Advanced Football Stats model. The value of the touchdown is 7.0 points minus subsequent field position, which is often assumed to be 27 yards. That yields

27*0.06 – 1.0 = 1.62 – 1.0 = 0.62 points,  or approximately 6.4 points for a TD.

This would yield, for a “Brianized” new passer rating formula, a surplus yardage value for the touchdown of 1.4 points / 0.06 = 23.3 yards.

The plot is below:

Eyeball linearization of BB’s EP plots yield this simplified linear scoring model. The surplus value of a TD = 23.3 yards, and a turnover is valued 66.7 yards.

Update 9/29/2011: No matter how much I want to turn the turnover equation into a difference, it’s better represented as a sum. You add the value lost to the value gained.

In chemistry, people will speak of the chemical potential of a reaction. That a mix of chemicals has a potential doesn’t mean the reaction will happen. There is an activation energy that prevents it. To note, the reaction energy can’t exceed the chemical potential of a reaction. Energy is conserved, and can neither be created nor destroyed.

Likewise, common models of the value of yardage assign a scoring potential to yards. I know of 5 models offhand, of which the simplest is the linear model (one discussed in The Hidden Game of Football). We’re going to derive this model by argument from first principles. There is also Keith Goldner’s Markov Chain model (see here and here), David Romer’s quadratic spline model (see here or just search for “David Romer football” via a good Internet search engine), the linear model of Football Outsiders in 2003, and Brian Burke’s expected points analysis (see here, here, here, and here). And just as in thermodynamics, where energy is conserved, this scoring potential has to be a conserved quantity, else the logic of the model falls apart.

One of the points of talking about the linear model is that is applies to all levels of football, not just the pros. Second, since it doesn’t require people to break down years worth of play by play data to understand it, the logic is useful as a first approximation. Third, I suspect some clever math geek could derive all the other models as Taylor series expansions where the first term in the Taylor series is the linear model itself. At one level, it has to be regarded as the foundation of all the scoring potential models.

Deriving the linear model.

If I start at the one yard line and then proceed back into my own end zone and get tackled, I’ve just lost 2 points. This is true regardless of the level of football being played. If instead I run 99 yards to my opponent’s end zone, I score 6 points instead. That means the scale of value in the common linear model is 8 points, and if we count each yard as equal in scoring potential, we start at -2 yards in my end zone, 6 in my opponents, and every 12.5 yards on the field, I gain 1 point of value. I do not have to crunch any numbers to assume this model as a first approximation.

Other models derive from analyzing a large data set of  games for down, distance, to go, and time situations.  They can follow all the consequences of being in  those down/distance combinations and  then derive real probabilities of scoring. We’re going to call those model EP, EPA or NEP models. The value in these models is rather than assuming some probability of scoring, average scoring probabilities are built into the model itself.

What’s the value of a turnover?

In the classic linear model,  as explained by The Hidden Game of Football, the cost of a turnover is 4 points. This is because the difference in value between both teams everywhere is 4 points.  The moment the model becomes nonlinear, that no longer applies. Both Keith Goldner’s model and the FO model predict that a turnover at the line of scrimmage minimizes in the middle of the field and maximize at the ends.

4 points is worth 50 yards. We’ll come  back to that in a bit.

What’s the value of a possession?

It’s the value of not turning  the ball over, and since we know the value of a turnover, in the linear model, possession is worth 4 points. In other models, this may change.

The value of the possession in  the linear model is always 4 points, even at the end of the game. To explain,  there are  two kinds of models that predict two kinds of things.

scoring potential models predict scoring

win probability models predict winning

The scoring potential of  the possession does not change as the game is ending. The winning potential does change and should change markedly as the game begins to end.

How much is a down worth?

This  is an important issue and not readily studied without a data heavy model. I’d suggest following a couple of the Brian Burke links above, they shed a terrific amount of light on the topic. Essentially, the value of a down at a particular time and distance is the difference in expected points at that time and distance between those downs.

How much is a touchdown worth?

We’ll start with the expected points models, because it becomes easy to see how they work. EPA or NEP style models have a total assigned value for the score (6.4 pts Romer, 6.3 Burke), so the value of scoring a touchdown is the value of the score minus the value of the position on the field. It has to be that way because the remaining value is a function of field position et al. If this isn’t true, you violate conservation of a scoring potential.

Likewise, in the linear model, the value of the touchdown is equivalent, due to linearity and scoring potential conservation, to the yards required to score the touchdown. This means if the defense recovers  the ball on the opponent’s 5  (i.e. the defense has just handed you 95 yards of value),  and your team runs for 3 yards, and then passes 2 yards for the score, that the value of the touchdown is 2 yards, or 0.16 points, and the value of the entire drive is 5 yards.

In this context, the classic interpretation of what THGF calls the new rating system doesn’t make a lot of sense.

RANKING = ( yards + 10*TDs – 45*Ints)/attempts

I say so because the yards already encompass the value of the touchdown(s). In this context, the second term could be regarded as an approximation of the value of the extra point (0.8 points of value in this case). And 45 instead of 50 is an estimation that the average INT changes field  position by about 5 yards.

Finally, this analysis begs the question of what model Pro Football Reference’s adjusted yards per attempt actually describes. I’ll try, however. If you adjust the value of yards to create a “barrier potential” term to describe the touchdown, you get the following bit of algebra

0.2(x + 2) + (x + 2 ) = value of true scoring difference = 6.4 + 2 = 8.4

1.2x + 2.4 = 8.4

1.2x = 6.0

x = 5

So, if you adjust the slope so the value of the line  at 100 equals 5 instead of 6, then the average value of a yard becomes 0.07 points, and the cost of  a turnover then becomes 3 points, or about 43 yards.

How much is a field goal worth?

The same logic that applies for a touchdown also applies for a field goal. It’s the value of the score minus the value of the particular field position, down, etc from which the goal is scored. Note that in a linear model, the value is actually negative for a field goal scored from the 37.5 yard line in. And  this actually makes sense, because the sum of the score values, as the number of scores grow large, in a well balanced EPA/NEP model should approach zero.  In the linear model, I suspect it will approach some nonzero number, which would be an approximation of  the average deviation from best fit EPA/NEP function itself.

Okay, so what if high scoring teams have this zero scoring value? What’s going on?

This is the numerator of a rate term, akin to that of a shooting percentage in the NBA. But since EP models are already averaged, the proper analogy is to the shooting percentage minus the league average shooting percentage. And to continue the analogy a bit further, to score in the NBA, you not only need to shoot (not necessary a good percentage), but you also need to make your own shot. Teams that put  themselves into position to score are the equivalent, they make their own shot. I’ll also note this +/- value probably also is a representation of the TD to FG ratio.

Conclusion

Scoring potential models are part of the new wave of football analysis and the granddaddy of all scoring potential models  is the linear model discussed extensively  in The Hidden Game of Football.  In these models, scoring potential is a conserved quantity and can neither be created nor destroyed. Some of the consequences of this conservation are discussed above.